THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF KARL MARX’S THOUGHT AND THE CONCEPT OF PROLETARIAN STRUGGLE

Pyramid_of_Capitalist_System

by:

Puteri Arune Setyawan

International Relation Scholar

University of Darussalam Gontor

This paper discusses the thinking of Karl Marx’s theory of population equality above, and the concept of the social struggle for the House. It focuses on the top position of the Division of labor and social broguoes in the concept of class struggle, as well as realizing the formation of society without classes. Marx pays attention to human relations. Commodity exchanges reflect the relationships among individual producers who are interwoven via the market. We found the concept of Karl Marx here fight for the proletariat as well as fighting for the rights of their freedom. The concept became the key over the thought of Marx about the Communist society and the function of the proletariat Marx, Marx and Engles characterizes the country is a tool that was made for the domination and oppression of class staunchly and immortal and would be the minority countries representing small classes. This concept was created to avoid the explosion over an increasing capitalism reigns at the time.

Keywords: Karl Marx, social, social resolution, Communist

  1. Preface

In the 19th century, the figure was nineteen wonderful world that gave a large donation to the world over his thoughts, eternal and strong influence on the history of human life. The idea of their philosophical thoughts that cause the phenomenon in the twentieth century are not only used for scientific foundation but every idea and Marx’s theories carried out realistically correspond to the State of the world.

One of his greatest contributions is the concept of class struggle that became the plant workers to continue to rise above his freedom and defending actions on capitalists. As an ideology, Marxism was largely the inspiration of social liberation movements that continue to evolve into a political movement, social and in various places and countries.

Marx examines human history from two aspects, namely economic and developmental aspects social aspects with the depiction of human beings who like to hang out, according to Karl Marx. Actually, the concept of Marx’s thinking is divided into two economic and philosophy influenced by G.W. F Hegel, David Ricardo, and Adam Smith. (Zahidi, p. 25)

The philosophy of Marx’s materialism was used. Throughout the history of modern Europe, and particularly at the end of the 18th century in France, where there is a persistent struggle against various junk from the middle ages, against slavery in various institutions and ideas, materialism is the only proven consistent philosophy, true against every branch of natural science and with a persistent fight against various forms of idolatry, perversion and so on. The enemies of democracy have always tried to deny it, polluting and defamatory of materialism, defend various forms of philosophical idealism, always, with one another and how using religion to combat materialism.

  1. The theory of Karl Marx (Marxism)

Philosophical foundations for social and economic theories of Marx revolves around the core idea of a widower: contextually view about human nature, and in the absence of the materialist conception of historical and about history. (Ismail, p. 26)

According to the classical thinking, liberal thinkers take the starting point the notion that humans should be understood as individuals should be allowed to do their free judgment over the constraints that are not necessary in order to allow them to follow and attended the best interests for themselves. Marx thus takes exception to the liberal ideas about the nature of the man. For Marx, the individual should be understood not as individual “abstract”, but as “social creature” that is fundamentally tied to the natural environment and their social lives.

The concept of Historical Materialism Dialectic and Materialism is the main ideology that gave birth to the concept of class, the relationship between class and class struggle in the idea of thinking of Marxism. Marx examines two aspects of human history which is the first, the economic factor that sets forth a series of developmental stages of the human economy include the method-the method of issuing a product requirement in determining the life any changes of human life (Linklater, p. 110) Secondly, social factors because Marx describes the nature of the beginning of a human being is a social creature and likes to hang out. The main aspect in social relations are the relationships that will embody the social classes. Therefore, it would appear two main classes based on types of property and position affect the level of expenditures for the purposes of life. A class to control the results of treasure, and one more class to create a property or power.

If the bourgeois economic experts look at the relationships between objects (exchange between commodity), Marx pays attention to human relations. Commodity exchanges reflect the relationships among individual producers who are interwoven via the market. Money shows that the relationship became more and more closely, without which the entire economic life brings together the integral from the producers. Capital (capital) saw a continuation of the development of this relationship: human labor becomes a commodity. The workers hired servant sells workforce to landowners, factory owners and the tools work. A worker using a portion of his working time to cover the cost of his life and his family (earned wages), some other times it works used without getting wages, merely bring more value to the owners of capital. More value is a source of profits, a source of prosperity for the capital owners classes. (Lenin, 1913)

For Marx’s human-born actor is social with their existence in social relationships, with their social circumstances, customize the humans to exist in the form of Marx’s historical material of the realist. For Marx’s concept of material here that makes a human being can customize their social circumstances, most importantly as we analyze the relationship of man in the context of their social and historical material, we can see in the capitalist economic system there are various structural strength and structural repression in the reign of borgeouis democratic system contained in the capitalist economy.

Key aspects of the context of the individual material, for Marx, is referring to technology and reproductive resources, and relations with the perpetrators of the production. Both of these keys form the mode of production, in the capitalist system it looks that the application of the extra work or the exploitation of the workers (proletarians) by the capitalists or (House of borguis). Marx predicts that there will be a further shift towards the production mode of Communist and communist societies, namely resistance arising from the top of the capitalist system.

Many of the disputes about whether Marx assumed that there will be an inevitable shift in the capitalist mode of production toward Communism or whether social actors must take an active role in ending the capitalist exploitation mode.

Marx’s belief in the role as proletarian emancipatory changes, and the influence of characteristic aspects and applications of the above rationale. Marx is the figure who strongly believe in changes towards the good in people, where the ideas of progress, and the struggle for political rights as well as large projects are in doubt. Of course, this theory arises in the thought of Marx after seeing the community faced with all aspects of Marx’s already think. Marx argued that originally owned production tools together so that the absence of exploit workers in terms of production, so what we see from it that there is no oppression of the working class, and the public is not familiar with power, and therefore the public will not know the name of the State, Marx argues that the shape of the country was not always there.

Marx argues that the history of the universe appears when social relationships between foreign goods production into global and cosmopolitan tastes when plotted on the desire to continue to consume products from foreign societies. Visible tension between the wealth produced by capitalism and poverty of individual  is generated by the sense of proletarian class solidarity.

The basic mechanism of the capitalist world economy is unbalanced exchanges. Capitalism not only involves the dredging of surplus value by the owner laborer, but also dredging of the surplus of the world economy as a whole by core area, and this applies in the agricultural stage of capitalism as well as industrial capitalism. (Jackson & Sorensen, 2013, p. 303)

Capitalism itself is forced to follow the changes to persist with the adjustment-adjustment to compensate for the demands of Communists and attacks.

  1. The most fundamental weakness in Marxism are:
  2. The presumption that the manpower formed the basis of the value of the goods is a weak base and did not survive, the value of the goods does not only depend on labor
  3. The presumption that happened to suffer to the incidence and polarization of the proletariat. This did not happen in dialectic we must understand that how weak laborers and how the reaction caused. This reaction is the essence of dialectic reaction, so the result of the workers ‘ fight, the whole community is also against. Not the proletariat which occurs precisely the opposite.

The Marxist approach to international relations that is reflected in the process that causes economic and social unification of humanity and stressing the role played in modern capitalism will accelerate this development. Isolation and exploitation will be replaced with a form of cooperation which will promote the universal freedom to all ethical aspirations. International proletarian was considered as the subject of history that will realize this goal. (Linklater, p. 135).

  1. The Influence Of Marxism

One of the reasons why Marxism is considered as a system of thought which was very rich is that Marxism combines three intellectual traditions that each has been highly developed at that time, namely the philosophy of Germany, French political theory, and economics. Marxism can not simply categorize as “philosophy” as the other, for Marxism philosophy contains the major philosophical dimensions and even the remarkable influence of much philosophical thinking. That is, the science of history and philosophy of modern times could not ignore it (Linklater).

  • THE CONCEPT OF CLASS STRUGGLE AND DEMANDS CHANGES TO THE WORKING CLASS

The desire of the workers or proletariat to free from the oppression of their main driving force to form a new social system. The hope of Marx with the insistence of proletarians who continue to want to change the social structure in ways hard and cruel as the usurpation of power quickly, aga proletarian class became the ruling class when able to seize power and position of the bourgeois class and centralize all production equipment on the proletarians.

Relate to the downtrodden class or proletarian Marx emphasized that the exploitation of the proletariat bore the elements of ‘ a ‘ class antagonism spurred a desire to be free from oppression. (Marx, p. 214) With this, the House of plotetar is going to build its own social system.

A social system to be established by the proletarians will to implementation a condition without distinction of social class. Classless is the manifestation of the proletariat to remove the separation between the social classes of the Fort. With the accomplishment of the condition of the power system no longer serves to suppress a group community. Class struggle like this will end in the abolition of the system of capitalism and the realization of communism (Classless).

Marx realized that the economic system is the Foundation of the political superstructure is founded upon it. The exploitation of the proletariat very attracted the attention of Marx in which workers are required to work in a very long time span with a wage is not comparable with the results of his work. If the bourgeois economists see the relationship Exchange interracial commodities, Marx thus pay attention to human relations.

The concept of class struggle used Marx often become debates among thinkers-thinker of Marxism. The concept refers to the concept of the dictator of the proletariat, the concept became a major key to understanding Marx’s theory of the Communist society and the function of the State of the proletariat.

The struggle to realize the revolution will fail when the class of the proletariat has no power in the country as a ‘ tool ‘ to overthrow the system of capitalism. Therefore, Marx strongly emphasized that to remove capitalism, which becomes an absolute requirement was proletarian must be able to seize State power and then master it.

Marx stated that the history of the struggle of mankind is the history of class struggle and the only tool used by the ruling class to oppress the subordinate classes. The concept of the joint will end in the abolition of the system of capitalism, and it’s a sign that the working class (proletariat) pioneered by laborers would win. A revolution that succeeded in overthrowing the Government with the knack with depends on the attitude of the dictatorship of the proletariat which is manifested in the form of class struggle. Dictatorial attitude is defined as ‘ tools ‘ in the phase displacement of the abolition of all classes of society (classes), i.e. the change of capitalist society to Communist society without classes.

Marx reveals widespread revolution concept based on his deep study of the Revolutionary named as Praxis. (Kristeva and Santoso, p. 28) Therefore, Marx expecting drastic changes over the proletariat or working class which will organize from the beginning of the country’s economic problems. The triumph of the revolution of the proletariat will be realized in a country with the majority of its population consists of the worker’s wages or results are not commensurate with the rigors of their work.

  1. THE STRATEGY OF CLASS STRUGGLE OF THE PROLETARIAT

The strategy of class struggle which is used often becomes a debate between the thinker of Marxism, the strategy refers to the concept of “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” (ismail, p. 31).

The concept became the key over the thought of Marx about the Communist society and the function of the proletariat Marx, Marx and Engles’s characteristic country is a tool that was made for the domination and oppression of class staunchly and immortal and would be the minority countries representing small classes. In his thought, Marx suggested the proletariat has conquered the State of understanding so that they can take advantage of his political power to seize all the capital from power House of bourgeois and centralize all production equipment in the hands of Governments controlled by the proletariat. Communist ideas were introduced in the idea of Marxism since Marx was in Paris in 1844. Marx predicted will be the formation of the system of communism in the future who sees this world no longer are static, but will apply the changes that continue to parallel (ismail, p. 31).

Will the presence of history changes, the process of historical change that moves through the primitive communism, feudalism, capitalism, socialism and ends through the history of communism. All the historical transformation achieved through the revolution of the proletariat which represents the thinking of the whole world.

Step over the realization of the revolution will fail if the proletariat does not rule over the country because they needed to overthrow the system of capitalism. Therefore, the expected Communist system will guarantee the security of the entire world due to the revolution of the proletariat can eliminate the narrow spaces in the bourgeois nationalism. Thus, the conflict between the classes of society can only be prevented if all society’s needs are met, all the finesse and potential of community social as well as in the funnel of a dispute between the social groups or individuals are continuing to recover. Even with the spending in the plan promotes the rational tools bring benefits for all people especially in dealing with the symptoms of equilibrium and warfare.

Marx quite clever with the highlight state of miserable and oppressed laborers, then imagines the classless society through the establishment of ‘ Communist country ‘. Thus, Marxism exposes the basic awareness of persons to form a social community so that economic rights and political classes the proletariat can be restored and emphasizes the need and maintaining freedom and independence (ismail, p. 33).

  1. CONCLUSION

Marx realized that the economic system is the Foundation of the political superstructure is founded upon it. The exploitation of the proletariat very attracted the attention of Marx in which workers are required to work in a very long time span with a wage is not comparable with the results of his work. If the bourgeois economists see the relationship Exchange interracial commodities, Marx thus pay attention to human relations. The desire of the workers or proletariat to free from the oppression of their main driving force to form a new social system.

In the end the concept of proletarian struggle and his strategy was created so that the proletarian and bourgeois not experiencing a social gap over a very significant difference in its work and income in terms of economy class.

BIBLOGRAPHY

Ismail, Indriaty & Mohd Zuhaili Kamal Bashir. 2012. Karl Marx dan Konsep Perjuangan Kelas Sosial. International Journal of Islamic Thought, Vol.1

Kristeva, Nur Sayyid Santoso. 2011. Negara Marxis dan Revolusi Proletariat. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar

Jackson, R., & Sorensen, G. (2013). Pengantar Ilmu Hubungan Internasional (5 ed.). (Kamdani, Ed., D. Suryadipura, & P. Suyatiman, Trans.) New York: Oxford University Press dan Pustaka Pelajar Offset .

Linklater, A. Theories of International Relations (third ed.). mac millan : Palgrave .

Marx, K. Poverty of Philosophy. Moscow : Foreign Language Publishing House .

Zahidi, s. (n.d.). pemikir-pemikir marxis dalam hubungan internasional. 25.

Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. London : 21 February 1848

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